Page 8 - Research and Eval revised
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These interactions between brain development and the environment allow a 4-year-old student to discern how to react to social situations in a manner that accounts for merit, friendship, and diffusion of responsibility (Hay, 1994; Baron-Cohen, 1994; Garber & Dodge, 1991; Frye and Moore, 1991).
Social-emotional development has been shown to vary depending upon gender. Interactions between psychobiological differences in temperament and gendered socialization practices result in females displaying a higher degree of “school-ready” behavior and demonstrating greater instances of pro-social and peer relationship skills (Denham, et al., 1990). Denham, Bassett, Sirotkin, Brown and Morris (2015) also found significant differences between genders when comparing temperament among a group of 3-to-5 year olds. Findings from this study indicated that girls outperformed boys on HEC tasks. A difference in temperament between genders has been studied extensively, highlighting differences in activity, emotionality, emotional intensity, and instances of approach or withdrawal (Else-Quest et al., 2006). Beginning at age 1, boys tend to display higher levels of activity, and at 18 months they show increased rates of emotional upset and frustrated reactions (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974). However, girls have been shown to better perceive low-level stimuli in their surroundings and display a more nuanced awareness of changes in their environment.
As is described, developmental influences attributed to age and gender impact the nature of social-emotional development for preschool children. The manner in which a child regulates behavior and expresses emotions influences their ability to focus on learning, engage in age appropriate play, initiate and maintain conversations, and develop friendships (Denham, Bassett, Thayer, Mincic, Sirotkin, & Zinsser, 2012).
Social-emotional development in early childhood has distinct stages based upon brain maturation and environmental influences. Four-year-old children are more able to discern how to react to social situations in a manner that accounts for merit, friendship, and diffusion of responsibility in comparison to 3-year-old children. Female children display a higher degree of “school ready” behavior and demonstrate greater instances of pro-social and peer relationship skills.


































































































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