Page 6 - Research and Eval revised
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2 and 4 (Denham, Blair, DeMulder, Levitas, Auerbach-Major, & Queenan, 2003). Attention and self-regulatory skills have also been shown to be positively related to social-emotional competence and academic skills (Eisenberg et al., 1995; McClelland et al., 2007; Rothbart, Posner, & Kieras, 2006; Trentacosta & Izard, 2007; Trentacosta, Izard, Mostow, & Fine, 2006). In particular, Wilson and Gottman (1996) characterized attention as the “shuttle” that connects emotional and cognitive processes. The interrelation of these constructs—attention, emotion, and cognition—reinforces the importance of social-emotional development in preschool age children. Therefore, it is essential that caregivers provide preschool students training to be attentive and regulate their emotions through the use of socially appropriate coping skills.
Currently, one of the major concerns among kindergarten teachers is that students entering their classrooms have not developed the level of social-emotional competence needed for academic readiness and success. Current research has illustrated a rise in behavioral problems in prekindergarten environments, with an estimated 15-20% of students displaying significant behavioral problems. Gilliam and Shahar (2006) surveyed a random sample of preschool teachers, and found that the average preschool expulsion rate of students during a 12-month period was 33%. Rates for African-American students were twice that of Latinos and Caucasians. Of those expelled, 91% were males. Therefore, higher instances of reported behavioral problems and expulsions encountered by male, minority students compels the examination of cultural and gender temperament differences as they relate to early childhood social-emotional development. Furthering the development of research that illustrates these pertinent factors will provide guidance for policy, practice, and future research that can positively impact this high-need population.
Studies showed that
15% -20%
increase in student behavior problems


































































































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